The intervertebral discs are a kind of pads that are placed between two vertebrae and their function is to cushion the loads and allow the movement of the spine. These discs are formed by multiple layers that are arranged around each other in the form of «onion» (fibrous ring), inside there is a gelatinous nucleus (nucleus pulposus), when the surrounding fibers break the nucleus usually moves back inside the spinal canal (which is where the nerves that reach the legs go down). The rupture itself produces pain but if this hernia also by its size or location compresses one of the nerve roots can produce the symptoms described above in the legs.
It usually causes low back pain together with muscular contractures and frequently irradiated pain (that extends) to one of the legs with or without feeling of tingling and tingling. In the most severe cases may be accompanied by muscle weakness in the area of pain.
It usually appears in young people (20-50 years) and there is a hereditary predisposition to suffer it. Although it is known that repeated overloads of labor or sports generally and injuries that affect the spine can fissure the annulus fibrosis resulting in hernia.
The initial treatment should be by rest and anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs and corticosteroids) to which analgesic and relaxing drugs can be added to control pain. Surgery is reserved for persistent cases and for cases in which the hernia is large and accompanied by intractable pain with medication or significant weakness of the legs. With surgery, it will generally be attempted to remove the herniated material, although in some cases it requires fixing the space with screws and bars (arthrodesis).