The main injuries of the ligaments are produced by a stretching or stretching of the ligament to counteract the external force that eventually ends up injuring the ligament, to a greater or lesser extent, the degree of injury will influence the symptoms. They are popularly known as sprains.
The ligaments are similar to the strings since they are formed from fibrous bundles of connective tissue, whose function is to stabilize the joints and limit the displacement of the bone ends during the movement of the joints. They are essential for good joint function, as they keep the bony ends in the optimal position for movement, providing stability.
The properties of the ligaments vary according to:
-The realization of physical exercise usually.
And these will influence considerably in the resistance, rigidity or elasticity of the same, and therefore, in that they are more or less prone to injury.
We classify ligament injuries in:
Sprain grade 1
The mechanism of injury is a joint torsion in which the ligament is stretched beyond normal limits. There is no lesion at the macroscopic or visual level, but rather at the microscopic level, where there is a lesion of the microfibers and the small vessels that nourish the tendon.
The diagnosis is made based on the clinical history in which a history of torsion is described and the symptoms described by the patient: pain, functional impotence or inability to mobilize the affected joint, in addition there may be inflammation and / or localized ecchymosis. An x-ray is usually performed to rule out the associated bone lesion and on examination it is found that the degree of ligament laxity is not increased.
With a basic treatment of temporary immobilization, local cold and anti-inflammatories, the correct healing occurs in a few days.
Grade 2 sprain or partial tear of the ligament
In this case the degree of elongation has been greater, although the continuity of the ligament is maintained the breaks of the fibers if they are visible, in addition the resistance of the same is diminished.
The symptoms are similar to the lesions of grade 1 although of greater intensity and in the exploration the existence of laxity of the ligament can be verified.
Diagnosis and treatment follow the same guidelines as in grade I, but recovery will be somewhat later.
Sprain grade 3 or total ligament tear
There is a complete rupture of the ligament or a detachment of it. It appears an intense pain, functional impotence and an important yawning joint (when forcing the joint opening, in normal conditions this one would be limited by this ligament, the complete injury of the ligament allows the abnormal opening of the articulation).
The diagnosis is established in the same way as in grades I and II, and the treatment will vary considerably depending on the location of the ligament.
Ligament scarring occurs spontaneously in extra-articular ligaments, such as the lateral ligaments of the ankle or knee; that with a maintained immobilization they will heal in a time inversely proportional to the degree of injury, that is, it will take longer as the degree of injury increases.
In intra-articular ligaments, for example, cruciate ligaments of the knee, scarring will not be carried out spontaneously and surgery will be required for reconstruction, being in these cases necessary to assess the type of residual instability to the injury and the benefits that arethey could obtain from the surgical repair, since sometimes, the residual damage does not interfere with the activities of the patient’s daily life and therefore reconstructive surgery is not required.
The need for surgical treatment should be made by a specialist in traumatology and surgery