The muscle is a tissue formed by a large number of fibers that have the ability to cross (contrase) and separate (distension) generate movement.They are formed by muscle fibers and depending on the type of fiber that forms it, we distinguish:
– Striated muscles, whose main function is the movement of joints, which is developed voluntarily.
Smooth muscle, whose function is visceral movement, which is carried out involuntarily.
The muscle that occupies us is the striated muscle. These muscles are distributed throughout the body, allowing our movement. Its morphology is shaped by a muscular belly that is thinned at its ends, acquiring a pearly color, what we know as a tendon, to reach the bone, where it is inserted. In this way, when they contract, they attract one end towards the other, producing the movement.
The muscles are surrounded by a thin layer of fibrous aspect called muscular fascia, which maintains the position of the same.
Types of muscle injuries
Also called lacerations; They are a total or partial section of muscle thickness produced by a cutting object. The main treatment consists of cleaning and assessment of the wound by a health professional, to proceed with the suture, if necessary. If the muscular wound is not large, it will heal on its own, being favored by immobilization.
-Contrusions muscle: They are muscle injuries produced by direct trauma without injury. After the blow, there will appear pain and swelling in the area, with some degree of functional impotence.
The importance of the injury is less if at the time of the trauma the muscle was contracted, since it exerts greater resistance to shock. The treatment consists of a compressive bandage and immobilization during 24-48h to avoid the formation of a hematoma.
Muscle tears are caused by the more or less extensive breakage of muscle fibers. This occurs when we produce or apply to the muscle a force superior to what it is capable of supporting. These situations occur more frequently in sports practice.
This situation receives different names, depending on the mechanism by which it occurs and the nature of the injury, such as fibrillar rupture or muscle distension.
– Muscular distension is the overstretching of a specific muscle group. When fiber remains intact, the main symptom is pain without appearance of accompanying hematoma.
– The fibrillar rupture involves the breakage of several muscle fibers, usually occurring practicing some type of physical exercise. The pain in this case is accompanied by bruising to a greater or lesser extent depending on the amount of broken muscle fibers.
– The muscle break is the total or partial muscle injury. The most frequent location is the transition zone between muscle tissue and tendinous tissue, also known as myotendinous junction.
Except for occasional breaks, the treatment of these injuries is based on rest and analgesia. The prevention of muscle tears consists of warm-up exercises that precede the practice of sports. Most of these problems are solved without more importance being the most frequent complication the repetition of the case.
– Deferred muscle pain Classically known as «stiffness». It begins at 24-48h of practicing exercise that we are not used to. The duration table is in relation to the intensity of it and the cure is always total. The only treatment is prevention (previous training).
– Muscle contracting: It occurs when a muscle contraction is maintained involuntarily after the cessation of voluntary movement, usually appear in the box of movements, postures or physical exercise to which the individual in question is not used or with a higher intensity to the usual.
Upon palpation of the area there is a bulge, with pain and difficulty in the movement of said muscle or muscle group.
The treatment is based on rest, analgesia and muscle relaxants. The local heat is an element that can help in the quick recovery of it. However, the best treatment of a contracture is the prevention of it, based on a good warm-up prior to exercise and performing them progressively, avoiding muscle over-exertion.