When a part of our body deteriorates affecting its normal functioning, it may require its replacement by an artificial component that mimics the shape or function of this damaged part of our body. These artificial substitutes are called prosthetics.
Not all parts of our body can be replaced by prostheses because we are not yet able to create substitutes for our entire anatomy, however technology continues to evolve in this respect, although it does so more slowly than we would professionals and over all the patients.
We must differentiate prostheses from implants and orthoses, since sometimes you tend to call everything in the same way.
Prosthesis: It is an artificial substitute for a part of our body.
Implant: It is a device that is inserted inside our body to restore the shape and / or function of a damaged part of our body.
Orthosis: It is a device that is applied on the outside to some part of our body and that restores the form and / or function of this part.
Medical impression 3d: The 3d impression are reproductions or replicas of a part of the anatomy that can be used for different purposes ranging from the planning of surgery to the implantation of material that has been printed
For placement, you must first remove the damaged part to replace it with the appropriate prosthesis. Being artificial components introduced into our body, there is the possibility of requiring subsequent surgeries for their replacement, whether due to wear, malfunction or other complications.
In musculoskeletal surgery, prostheses are substitutes for the joints, which intend to imitate normal movement. For this, the components usually have a shape similar to that of the original articulation with a contact surface between them very smooth, which will favor the sliding minimizing friction.
In the scientific medical language prostheses are also called arthroplasty: «artro-» means joint; «Plasty-» means construction, therefore reconstruction of an articulation, which in most cases is performed using a prosthesis. Although this must be qualified since we can not only reconstruct a joint using a prosthesis; Certain joints can be reconstructed using parts of our body, as is the case of the joints of the first finger of the hand, where with a tendon we replace the damaged surface of the joint. We can differentiate therefore:
Total arthroplasties: total prostheses, where the two components that form the joint are replaced
Hemiarthroplasties or partial arthroplasties: These are partial prostheses, where only one end of the joint is replaced.
Parcelar arthroplasties: parcelar prostheses. Where we replace only a small portion of the joint, leaving intact the areas not affected by the deterioration.